After the revolts of October 2018, Iraq experienced twelve months of relative calm. However, basically the economic and social situation remained broadly the same. Iraq didn’t experience a new wave of protests until October 2019, which initially turned out to be very similar to the previous one. What is new, however, is the magnitude and intensity of the mobilization, the level of violence used by the demonstrators and the level of repression. After a break of a few weeks due to a Shiite pilgrimage, the protest, which looked like extinguished, resumed but appeared to be transformed, on both form and content, and both in terms of demands and sociology of the participants. As the weeks passed, and despite the deaths, the fatigue and the phases of retreat, the movement continues in a quasi-routine of demonstrations and riots… but it can’t find a way out. Although the Prime Minister has promised to meet the demands of the protesters, he was forced to throw in the towel at the end of November, plunging Iraq further into uncertainty. At the time of writing, the mobilization continues.Continue reading Tristan Leoni: #Iraq, from riot to impossible reform – Part 2: 2019 Political reform or civil war?
Continue reading Tristan Leoni: #Iraq, From riot to impossible reform – Part One: Rage and Fire 2018
“I stopped in elementary school, but I already knew how to shoot with a Kalashnikov. We were training in the neighborhood.”A Basra resident, former militiaman